|Architectural Laboratory Water Treatment Marine Air Handling|
Core sample acquisition and processing. One hundred twenty-two continuous meters of rock was cored with conventional rotary methods over a 2-week period in February 1995. Cores (1.5 m long, 6.11 cm in diameter) were retrieved by wireline. Groundwater pumped from the downgradient Sacramento Valley regional aquifer was amended with sodium hypochlorite to a concentration of 60 mg liter −1 and used as drilling fluid. Drilling fluid was continually discharged (not recirculated) during coring. Nineteen of the seventy-six cores required to advance the hole past the surface casing to total depth were processed for microbiological analyses (every fourth core). Sixteen of these cores could be closely matched in depth with groundwater samples obtained by straddle packer sampling (described below) (Fig. 2). No groundwater samples could be taken to compare with three cores taken between 102.7 and 122.0 m because of the length of the straddle packer sampler and accumulated debris in the corehole. Control and assessment of contamination introduced during coring were consistent with procedures reviewed by Fredrickson and Phelps ( 11) and Griffin et al. ( 15), including the use of carboxylated, fluorescent microspheres (0.9-μm diameter; Polysciences, Inc., Warrington, Pa.) ( 38) and soluble perfluorocarbon tracers ( 30) to assess drilling fluid intrusion. New drilling rods were purchased and dedicated to this project. All drill steel was steam cleaned prior to insertion into the corehole, and the inner core barrel was similarly cleaned prior to each trip downhole. The inner barrel was handled only with clean cotton gloves by researchers and drillers, and no lubricant was used on the pipe threads. For microbiological cores, a Lexan liner that had been cleaned with 10% bleach solution, rinsed with distilled water, and air dried was placed inside the inner core barrel.
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